UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE " NJ '° E WHEELER - '"«■"" THOMAS FORSYTH HUNT, DEAN AND DIRECTOR BERKELEY h. e. van norman, vice-director an^ dean University Farm School CIRCULAR No. 202 June, 1918 COUNTY ORGANIZATION FOR RURAL FIRE CONTROL By WOODBRIDGE METCALF THE NEED Uncontrolled fires in grain fields, grass ranges, and forests cause destruction annually of a large amount of foodstuffs, and of other resources vitally necessary to the successful prosecution of the war. The best figures obtainable indicate that this destruction in California reaches a total of $750,000 a year, the damage being about equally divided between the three resources above mentioned. The fifteen to twenty thousand acres of standing grain annually destroyed in the state would supply the cereal ration for nearly thirty thousand troops for a year. The thousands of acres of range and tons of hay which are annually lost by fire resulted last year in the starving of hundreds of cattle which we can ill afford to lose. The damage by forest and lumber-yard fires of approximately a quarter of a million dollars, makes more difficult the provision of aeroplane stock, ship timbers, and boxes for shipment of food supplies and ammu- nition. The 2000 to 2500 field and forest fires per year in California, most of which are the result of carelessness, must be extinguished at the cost of much time and labor. National-Forest records and esti- mates for the remaining portions of the state indicate that it took an equivalent of 800 men, working four months, to extinguish field and forest fires in California last year. This labor is much needed in shipbuilding, in agriculture, and in other productive work, but we shall continue to expend large amounts of it in fighting fires until such time as adequate organization and equipment for fire fighting are available in every county. Persons residing in outlying districts .have suffered great and unnecessary losses from fires started for the most part through care- lessness; and when such fires were started have had no means of procuring needed assistance. City residents have protection furnished by organized fire departments; the time has come when similar pro- tection should be accorded grain-fields, ranges, and brush and timbered areas, because in most instances these are subjected to a menace over which the property owners have little or no control. More people are using the fields and woods every year for hunting, camping, and similar recreation ; a condition much to be desired, but involving dangers from a fire-protection standpoint. Many of these people, who have not been educated to the fire risks involved, drop burning matches and tobacco along the highways and leave camp fires un- extinguished, thus confronting the individual property owner with problems that he cannot handle alone. The state law makes it a misdemeanor to leave unextinguished camp fires, but this will be ineffective until it is made the duty of someone in each county to enforce it. Also, when fires in remote places are not discovered until they have developed beyond ordinary means of control, someone should be charged with the duty of taking prompt action to suppress them before they become dangerous conflagrations. Arrangements should be made in advance for defraying charges for transportation, time of persons fighting fire and their subsistence, so that the man in charge will not be delayed by "red tape" at a time when minutes count. It has been demonstrated by federal and private cooperative agencies in many states that when an adequate fire detection and suppression system is put into effect, any area can be protected so that small fires rarely assume dangerous proportions. The Forest Industries Committee of California, under the chair- manship of the state forester, and including representatives of the United States Forest Service, the University of California and the lumber industry, is coordinating the efforts of all these organizations in promoting better fire protection throughout the rural and moun- tain communities of the state. In this work the Committee has endorsed the plan of county organization described below as the most feasible for dealing effectively with the fire situation. The plan in its essentials was worked out early in 1917 for the farm bureau of Merced County by Roy Headley of the United States Forest Service. As a farm-advisor project it proved to be so effective in 1917 in Merced and Solano counties that the annual convention of county farm bureaus of March, 1918, adopted it as one of seven war projects of major importance. The Committee has the hearty cooperation of 3 the federal food administration, the Governor of the State, the State Council of Defense, the Fire Prevention Bureau of the Pacific, and the State Department of Education. AUTHORIZATION Subsection 40, of Section 4041 of the Political Code of California, authorizes the board of supervisors of any county to appropriate an amount not to exceed two cents per hundred dollars on the total assessed valuation of the county for fire prevention and suppression. The money does not necessitate a special levy and can be expended in any way to secure the maximum of fire protection, depending on local conditions and needs. It may be used to purchase fire-fighting equip- ment, as in Solano and Napa counties, or to hire one or more fire wardens or rangers, as in Alameda County. ESSENTIALS OF COUNTY ORGANIZATION Recommendations in detail as to the necessary protection pro- gramme for a given county can be made only after a study of resources involved, fire hazards, available protection forces, and other factors which enter into the fire problem of each community. This study can best be made by someone experienced in fire-fighting methods who is thoroughly acquainted with the territory in question and who can formulate a simple yet effective plan for rapid detection and sup- pression of any fires occurring within the county. In counties having a farm advisor, he is taking the initiative in formulating such a plan, often in cooperation with the fire chief of the county seat and with the support of the county council of defense. Although subject to modification to conform to local needs the following six points should be covered in an adequate fire protection plan for any county: 1. A county fire warden. 2. Local fire companies, each with competent officers and a district fire plan. 3. Installation of adequate fire-fighting equipment. 4. A comprehensive county fire ordinance. 5. Publicity measures throughout the county and in each local district. 6. Prompt reports on all fires. COUNTY FIRE WARDEN Whether elected by members of the local fire companies or regu- larly employed by the board of supervisors, there should be someone in general charge of safeguarding the resources of the county from damage by fire. He will usually be known as county fire warden, and will be deputized by, and work in cooperation with, the state forester in perfecting and bringing to a state of cooperative efficiency the equipment and efforts of all associations, companies, and individuals who are working for better fire protection within the county. As an instance of this, there may be several lumber companies, a railroad, *mH Ch,ef. ■Siitk »■/// ■Sfrrrnj Jlffue Forrrsf tti/f 71/rJ,. L \ 3 \ 1 N S \ ', V f 8 3 JO 62 F f S /6 J Z • 7 s J / ,y /^ COUNTY FIRE F>LAN = Good. Tfoad f^ire f/y/iT'inj Too/s Fig. 1. — A county fire plan showing all important protection features in the county should be made by the county fire warden. a warehouse association, a county stockmen's association and many individual property owners, all interested in fire protection, but unable to coordinate their efforts in this direction except through the efforts of the county fire warden. The county fire warden will assist in the organization of local fire-fighting companies, recommend qualified men for appointment or election as officers in those companies, and instruct them in the execution of the duties they are to perform. He will recommend to the board of supervisors for purchase, and install at proper points in the various danger areas, adequate fire-fighting equipment which he shall inspect at frequent intervals to insure its being kept in condition for immediate and effective use. It will be his duty to inspect all property in the county in order to determine what fire hazards exist and to make such recommendations to the owners as may be necessary to eliminate the hazards. He will enforce the existing state laws and from time to time recommend, with the approval of property owners, such amendments to the county fire ordinance as may be necessary to minimize fire hazards or handle fire problems. In some instances this may mean a closed season against the burning of brush or setting of fire for any purpose without a permit from the fire warden. Under some conditions it may be necessary to compel property owners to plow strips as fire breaks around their grain fields, particularly where these are situated next to a highway, or compel installation of adequate safety devices on harvesting machinery. (See Stanislaus County ordinances in appendix.) In many instances the county fire warden should see to it that inflammable vegetation between roads and grain fields, or around warehouses, is cut and burned early in the season so that it may not later constitute a menace to the grain crop. The county fire warden should be provided with an automobile capable of taking a number of fire fighters, with equipment, water and provisions, to any fire which cannot be handled by the local fire company. In order to deal promptly with dangerous situations he should be authorized by the board of supervisors to expend in an emergency up to a stated sum of money for temporary labor, trans- portation, and provisions. The county fire warden should appoint one or two good men as assistant county fire wardens to aid him in times of great fire danger, or to take charge of the situation during his absence. These men, as well as himself, will be appointed state fire wardens by the state forester, which enables them to compel able-bodied citizens to fight fire in case of necessity. This necessity should rarely arise if the county is well organized, as the men of the local companies can be depended upon to do their' duty when the emergency comes. LOCAL FIRE COMPANIES These should be organized in the several towns and rural com- munities, the ideal being to secure distribution in the county so that two or more such companies can be quickly sent to the assistance of any one organization that needs help in a dangerous situation. The organization is simple and can be perfected as part of the work of each farm bureau center. The local company should be made up of ten or more men who are competent and willing to fight fires, and who are known to be loyal American citizens. As soon as the personnel of the company is decided upon, officers will be chosen who will be known as the fire chief, or fire boss, and assistant fire chief or boss. These men will be in charge of all fires occurring within their district until the county fire warden or one of his assistants arrives on the scene. They will be appointed state fire wardens by the state forester upon recommendation of the county fire warden, and may also be deputized by the county sheriff if the police power going with this appointment seems desirable. Excellent results have been obtained in forming local companies in San Diego County through the use of the following cooperative fire suppression agreement : Cooperative Fire Suppression Agreement We, the undersigned members of the Farm Bureau and other landholders in the District, realizing the necessity of preventing the enormous annual destruction by fire of stock ranges, forests, food-stuffs, and forage, and the fact that during this period in particular it is the patriotic duty of every loyal American citizen to produce for our army and our allies every possible ounce of those commodities so vital to their success, do hereby agree: 1. That we will, each and all, use every effort to prevent the outbreak of fires and urge our neighbors to do the same. 2. That in case of necessary burning of brush piles in connection with clearing land, we agree to secure from an authorized state fire warden the usual form of burning permit, and discourage our neighbors from starting any fires without a permit. 3. That, in case of fire, we will immediately answer any call for volunteers within this general vicinity, unless prevented by good and sufficient reasons. 4. That we will place ourselves under the direction of Fire Agent or Fire Warden, during the progress of the fire. 5. That we will do our utmost to suppress said fire at the earliest possible moment. 6. That we will do all the aforesaid freely and without compensation unless our services are required for more than six hours, in which case, under the discretion of the County Fire Warden, claim for our services will be sub- mitted to the County Board of Supervisors, at the rate of 25 cents per hour. DUTIES OF FIEE CHIEF With the help of his assistant and in cooperation with the county fire warden, the local fire chief will provide for storage at the most accessible point in the district of the fire-fighting trailer or other equipment that may be provided by the board of supervisors or by local subscription. He will instruct his men as to their duties when a fire occurs and will drill them in methods of using various types of equipment. He will designate someone to be local "dispatcher," whose duty it will be to take care of the lines of communication during a fire. The dispatcher, who may be the local postmaster or storekeeper, will be someone who is always available at the telephone in order to be notified immediately when a fire starts. When so notified the dis- patcher will immediately call the fire chief and thereafter stay at the telephone in order to transmit the latter 's orders to men who are needed at the fire. The dispatcher's telephone number should be widely advertised throughout the district by means of posters and newspaper notices so that the person discovering a fire will be able to report it with the least possible loss of time. OfTO 0/ST/T/CT r/ffE PLAN Fire trailer & - Fire boss 7e/ F 21 H • Desf><L+cfier * F 6 I = Jones fwi " F 20 /r. f /e ** F 7 F 3 /r. F /6 F 30 F ZS Sr. Z • 13ro*/n 6 •• 3 « Jack sin 3 » -f . Ffa.cH /O " 5 » Porter Z * 6 » 5WM <4- •• Z feams.r plows 7 = Gray (j men. Tea «! t £ r ,»kli") " a J°» 8 m Secf/on /hrrma>\ ffnj S"*cn 5 . 'Ttvift 3 men F 9 Z r County F/re M/at-Jen. - *f*m Z83 F/r>e Ch/ef SBeevitfe Dist ~ 2>* 6S » " Grayson » - Sooth 7Z Fig. 2. — The district fire plan kept hanging near the telephones of the chief, assistant chief and dispatcher gives all necessary information and hastens the operation of getting men and equipment to a fire. < DISTRICT FIRE PLAN The fire chief will make a detailed study of his district to deter- mine the areas of greatest hazard on the one hand and the available protection forces and equipment on the other. The latter data will be found to be most useful if entered on a map similar to figure 2, giving a tabulated list at one side of all persons who will respond when needed and the equipment they can be depended upon to bring. Copies of this plan should hang beside the telephones of the chief, assistant chief, and dispatcher, and one should be on file in the office of the county fire warden. It will increase speed and accuracy in giving directions during the excitement of a fire and should be revised from time to time. 8 While engaged in the study of the district necessary to the framing of this plan, the fire chief should lose no opportunity to advise with property owners in the community as to the removal of all possible fire hazards on their premises. If this is done conscientiously by each fire chief, with the assistance of the county fire warden where neces- sary, the whole county will soon reach a condition of safety which would not otherwise be possible. Some people may resent such sug- gestions, but it is believed that these will be few in comparison to those who will enter wholeheartedly into this "safety first" movement. The safety measures adopted should be particularly thorough where large amounts of foodstuffs are at stake. It is better to err on the side of safety than to take chances, any time. * Fig 3. — The two-wheeled trailer weighs 1200 pounds loaded. The .equipment it contains is worth its weight in gold when a bad fire threatens. At least $5000 worth of grain was saved in one county last year through the efficiency of these outfits. FIKE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT In order to fight fires successfully adequate equipment must be ready and stored in such a way that it may be transported to a fire with the least possible delay. It is believed that a small two : wheeled auto trailer, which may be attached instantly to any automobile, best solves the transportation problem. It has the advantage of being light in weight, durable in construction, reasonable in price, and at the same time adequate in capacity to suit the needs of most local districts. Thirteen of these trailers, as described below, were installed last year in Solano County and are giving perfect satisfaction. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE TRAILER (See figure 4) Outside Dimensions. — 36 X 72 inches. Bed. — 2 X 8-inch plank set on edge, forming twelve 7 X 7-inch compartments and five 14 X 14 inch compartments, requiring 50 lineal feet, surface on four sides. H t ♦■ \ ? (— l'—-* 3b" --t Deta,/ Of Solar- Cemitj Fig. 4. — Plan of the Solano County fire-fighting trailer. The small subdivisions are for 2 1 / 4-gallon fire extinguishers, while the large ones hold 10-gallon water cans, extra charges, wet sacks and tools. Bottom. — 1-inch boards, surfaced on two sides, securely nailed to the bed requiring 40 board feet. Spring Cleats. — Two pieces, 2X3 inch, running lengthwise at outside edge» underneath the floor, requiring 12 lineal feet, surfaced on four sides. One spring hanger is bolted to each of these pieces. Tongue. — Piece of 2 X 4-inch, nine to ten feet long, securely spiked through the flooring to the several divisions of the bed. Bolts are not required. 10 The Hitch. — Made of two pieces of 1%-inch strap iron, bolted to the tongue, one rigid and one flexible to allow of adjustment K to any automobile (see sketch). One foot of light steel chain with snaffle attached is fastened into a hole left in the outer end of each of these arms. Both chain and arms can be wrapped with canvas or padded to prevent scratching of enamel on machine to which trailer is attached. Several good hitches on the market can be purchased at reasonable prices. It may be more convenient to use one of these on the trailer, in which case a special connecting bar must be attached to all automobiles which may have to pull the trailer. Whatever type of hitch is used, those responsible for getting the 'trailer to fires should practice until the attachment can be accomplished in the shortest possible time. Running gear and springs are standard light automobile equipment and can usually be secured second-hand at a reasonable figure. Steel instead of rubber tires will require less attention and give good service. Springs should be of one-ton capacity. After completion the whole should be given two coats of good mineral paint. The Solano County trailers cost between $45 and $50 each. Sev- eral types of one-ton commercial trailers are on the market, but these are higher in price and will probably not give any better service than the one here described. A reasonably satisfactory trailer can be made by using a light spring wagon with cut-under front wheels. The shafts or pole will have to be cut off in order to devise a satis- factory hitch, while the bed can be subdivided to hold the equipment. Unless of cut-under construction these four-wheeled trailers are apt to be overturned in rounding corners. EQUIPMENT FOE FIKE TRAILER Two and one-half gallon chemical fire extinguishers of the loose- stopple, acid-and-soda type, will just fit into the 7 X 7-inch compart- ments in the trailer bed. Ten of these, of a make approved by the Board of Fire Underwriters, should be carried in ten of the twelve compartments of this size, while extra charges of acid and soda will fit into the other two. The fire extinguishers are listed by the several makers at about $18, but this price is subject to discounts in dozen lots,* averaging 30 per cent f.o.b. San Francisco. Extra charges, consisting of one and one-half pounds of bi-carbonate of soda (baking soda) and four ounces of sulphuric acid will cost from thirty to fifty cents each, the best price being secured when the chemicals are bought in bulk. They can then be put up in packages for quick use in the field. It will be found most satisfactory to carry the acid in bottle of the same type as those in the extinguisher, so that no time need be lost in pouring acid from one bottle to another in recharging. * For list of approved fire extinguishers see Bulletin 295, California Agricul- tural Experiment Station. 11 HOW TO USE THE EXTINGUISHERS The one and one-half pounds of baking- soda must be thoroughly dissolved in two and one-half gallons of water. Two or three buckets, each holding two and one-half or three gallons, are necessary for this purpose. Do not put the dry powder into the extinguisher and then pour in the water, as any undissolved particles of soda may clog the hose at a critical moment. When the soda solution is ready unscrew the top of the extinguisher, remove the empty acid bottle from the wire rack under the cap and pour the soda solution into the body of the extinguisher. A bucket with a funnel bottom will prevent spilling;. Remove the cork from a four-ounce bottle of acid, replacing the cork with the lead stopple. Put the acid bottle in the wire cage and replace the top of the extinguisher, screwing it down tightly. The only operation necessary to discharge the extinguisher is to turn it upside down, causing the acid to mix with the soda, the result- ing chemical action furnishing the pressure to expel the solution. Many extinguishers are damaged by men who in the excitement of a fire reverse them and drop them forcibly on the ground. This is not necessary as the lead stopple will fall out of itself when the extin- guisher is reversed. A single charge will last about one minute and throw a stream forty feet during that time. This is sufficient to wet down from two hundred to three hundred feet of fire in standing grain. Ordinarily about twenty-five extra charges should be car- ried on the trailer and a reserve supply should be available for the emergency of several fires occurring in quick succession. WATEE Water for charging extinguishers is most conveniently carried in ten-gallon milk cans which just fit in the 14 X 14-inch spaces in the trailer bed. Four of these cans will furnish water for sixteen recharges, making a total of twenty-six available charges when the trailer reaches a fire. It is presumed that before these are used up the fire chief will be able to have an extra supply of water on the ground. Some companies are using a forty-gallon barrel for carrying water. This is apt to tip over on rough ground, and in brush or on hillsides cannot be carrieel to the seat of the fire as is the case with the ten-gallon can. Fresh drinking water for the men is an absolutely essential part of fire-fighting equipment as fire fighters soon become exhausted if it is not available. The best way to carry drinking water is in a three- 12 to five-gallon canvas water bag which kee,ps the contents cool by evaporation of water from the outer surface. Water bags should not t)e kept full of water, but filled with cool water just before the trailer goes to the fire. An extra supply of fresh water may be carried in one of the water cans and should not be used for recharging extin- guishers except as a last resort. Fig. 5. — The Lodi Fire Company and four-wheeled trailer. The U-hitch shown will fit over the axle of any automobile, being held in place by a bolt at the top. A short piece of chain and snaffle on each side prevent its slipping sideways. Parts are padded with rubber hose to prevent scratching the automobile. This hitch is rigid enough to pull well, and has enough flexibility to insure safety in turning corners. OTHER EQUIPMENT Box containing ten folded burlap sacks. Water should be poured into the box when the trailer leaves for a fire so that the sacks will be thoroughly moistened. They are very useful for beating out a fire which has been dampened with extinguishers. Six shovels and six ten-inch hoes are useful in fighting fire with earth or making fire lines where plows cannot be used. Six wire street-sweeping brooms make excellent tools for sweeping a fire out in short grain or grass. Five two and one-half gallon buckets, one of which has a wide- mouth funnel in the bottom, are necessary for carrying water and recharging the extinguishers. 13 A four-pound axe, a heavy mattock and a pair of heavy wire cutters should be on every trailer. These are useful in getting through fences and demolishing other obstructions which may bar the way in getting the equipment to the fire. All of this equipment can be carried lengthwise of the trailer between the extinguishers and milk cans, or hung in racks at each side. A ladder for getting at fires in buildings can be carried on a four-wheeled trailer, but is too unwieldy for the smaller outfit. The trailer and outfit as described will cost between $200 and $225, distributed about as follows : Trailer, $50-$60. Extinguishers, $120-$125. Water cans and pails, $15-$20. Tools, $25-$30. If desired two man-pack water bags with double-acting siphon pump can be substituted for two of the fire extinguishers. These were developed by, and may be purchased from, the Western Forestry and Conservation Association, 525 Yeon Building, Portland, Oregon, and are particularly useful in fighting fire in brush or hilly ground. A water-proofed canvas bag, holding from seven to eight gallons of water, is fitted with shoulder straps so that it may be carried on the back. The siphon hand-pump draws water from the bag through a short piece of hose and throws it for a distance of forty feet. Com- bining more than double the capacity of the fire extinguisher with portability and cheapness, these should prove very effective fire- fighting tools. They cost about $8 each, and are enthusiastically endorsed by rangers of the Oregon Fire Association who used them last year. Another similar piece of equipment which will be most useful in the sections of mountainous counties where roads are bad is a horse or mule outfit consisting of two eight-gallon canvas pack-saddle bags with hose and force pump. This can be used anywhere a pack animal can go, and has given good satisfaction in fighting fires in the Rocky Mountains. These outfits are made by J. G. Read Bros. Company, Ogden, Utah, and cost about $35, not including the pack saddle. In those districts where the chief danger is from timber and brush fires the following standard equipment, such as is used t by the United States Forest Service, is recommended. This should be stored in a locked box located at a convenient crossroads or intersection of trails. If the box is painted orange and conspicuously labelled ' ' County Fire Fighting Tools" it will serve as a reminder of the need for care with fire. 14 Brush and Timber Fire Fighting Equipment 10-15 Man Crew Tool Type Number Axes 314 -lb. I). B. falling 3 Axes 3-lb. D. B. swamping 3 Axes 21^-lb. with pole axe handle 6 Mattocks 5-lb. 3% inches wide 6 Hoes 7-in. oval eye planters' hoe 6 Shovels... Long handle, round point 6 Saw 5-ft. falling pattern 1 Files 8-inch mill 6 Water bags Canvas, 5-gallon 2 Lantern Cold blast 2 COUNTY FIRE ORDINANCES The board of supervisors of several counties have furthered fire protection within their counties by passing ordinances which enforce certain safety measures, prohibit certain acts during the dry season, and provide penalties for non-compliance with any of the provisions of the ordinance. Such an ordinance can be drawn up by the district attorney in cooperation with the county fire warden to fit local needs. (See Stanislaus County ordinance in appendix.) In brief some of the provisions of such an ordinance may be the following : 1. Creating the office of county fire warden and defining the duties of that office. I ! i || 4'] 2. Requiring the plowing of suitable fire-breaks around grain fields, and stacks of grain or hay in the field. 3. Requiring the clearing of a fire-break around all warehouses, barns, buildings, and pumping plants within the county outside the limits of incorporated towns. 4. Requiring the use of approved air clarifiers and spark arresters on all gasoline engines used in harvesting grain within the county. 5. Requiring that all combined harvesters, or other outfits har- vesting grain, shall be equipped . at all times with at least two chemical fire extinguishers. 6. Requiring the installation of adequate fire protective equipment in all warehouses used for the storage of grain or foodstuffs within the county. 7. Prohibiting the burning of grass, brush or other inflammable material in the county during a specified danger season without a written permit from the county fire warden and then only under safeguards dictated by that official. 15 8. Making it the duty of the county fire warden, or other official, to make inspections in connection with the above provisions and arrest violators for noncompliance. 9. Providing for patrol of highways passing through areas of great fire hazard. In some cases county traffic officers could well perform this service in connection with their regular duties. 10. Providing suitable penalties for noncompliance with any of the provisions of the ordinance. Such a county ordinance, if carefully drawn up and wisely enforced, will supplement the provisions of the state and federal fire laws and greatly aid in the prevention of all classes of fires within the county. It is hoped that every county in the state will shortly adopt an ordinance containing as many of the above provisions as are needful in dealing with the local situation. PUBLICITY It is believed that the situation warrants publicity within the various counties in addition to that given by the United States Forest Service, and by the state forester. Signs similar to those shown in the illustration (fig. 6) can be successfully used to emphasize the provisions of the county fire ordinance, advertise in each district the names and telephone numbers of the local fire chief and dispatcher, and teach brief lessons of care with fire. The fact that the county board of supervisors does this will tend to emphasize these things both to local residents and to strangers who are apt to be careless. FIRE PROTECTION FOR WAREHOUSES All grain and hay warehouses should be safeguarded by the in- stallation of adequate fire-fighting equipment. The Board of Fire Underwriters of the Pacific considers one two and one-half gallon chemical fire extinguisher for every 2500 square feet of floor space as furnishing a minimum of safety, and recommends in addition the installation of three two and one-half gallon fire pails per same unit of area. These must be kept filled and so located as to be instantly available. A barrel of at least twenty-four gallons capacity, kept filled with water, may be substituted for the chemical extinguisher. Where the warehouse is so situated as to be exposed to flying sparks from passing train or burning buildings, a ladder long enough to reach the peak of the roof should be kept hanging on pegs at the side of the building. This should be labelled, "For Fire Only," and never be used for any other purpose. 16 REPORTS ON FIRES It is essential that the local fire chief make a report to the county fire warden, following either of the forms given on page 20, as soon as possible after the fire is out. The latter will then file his report on the same fire with the state forester on cards which the latter pro- vides for this purpose. If no county fire warden has been elected, each fire warden will send a separate report on each fire to the state forester's office. This is necessary, not only that evidence may be collected where fires start under suspicious circumstances, but also in order that the efficiency attained by various organizations may be made known for the benefit of others. WARNING Use extreme care with fires! Clear away ground around Bret See that fire U out when leaving Do NOT burn .tubbU or bnuh during dry hum link** abwjluurjr imc*» If found Mcownry um otrom. c«r.t Whon wind U Mowing doubk »r. with fir* Grain men and range owner» are urged to keep eitm fire I on hand and bring um to fire, (or volunteers who are l» AUo carry extinguuher. on harvester, and tractor. Merced County Board ot Supervisors When arriving at a fire Follow his instruction*. district is Tire Boss" for duty "Fire Boss" for this Merced County Board of Supervisors Fig. 6. — County fire notices when well gotten up and properly distributed do not admit of doubt in anybody's mind as to the importance of fire protection. Their presence indicates to residents and strangers alike that the county is alive to its responsibilities in this matter. 17 INCENDIARY FIRES It is essential that the members of each community be on the look- out for suspicious characters who may be traitorously attempting to further the ends of the enemies of the country by destroying food and other war supplies by means of fire. One California county had fourteen fires of undoubted incendiary origin during one month last year which destroyed hay valued at $45,000. The labor situation in Washington last season brought the seriousness of this hazard to the attention of the public in the grain section which organized to combat this evil. Each district had a secret organization with a deputy in charge, and was in close cooperation with adjoining dis- tricts by telephone. Every stranger was closely watched and an explanation was demanded for any suspicious action. The "fire bugs" soon came to know that a misstep or misdemeanor brought swift and sure punishment. This resulted in a more favorable season in that section than in the preceding years. The federal food administration is directing the prosecution of all persons suspected of setting incendiary fires. This will be in the hands of federal prosecutors. The maximum penalty for conviction on such a charge is two years at hard labor in a federal prison and a fine of ten thousand dollars. LITERATURE Further information regarding fire protection is given in the following publications, which until the supply is exhausted can be obtained free of charge upon application to the organizations named. Fire Protection for Grain Fields. Bulletin 295, California Agricultural Experi- ment Station, Berkeley, Calif., April, 1918. Handbook of Forest Protection. California State Board of Forestry, Sacramento, Calif., April, 1918. The Western Fire Fighters' Manual. Western Forestry and Conservation Asso- ciation, Portland, Ore., April, 1918. Fire Prevention Day — A Lesson. California State Board of Forestry, Sacramento, Calif., April, 1918. Fire Prevention and the War. United States Forest Service for California, San Francisco, Calif., April, 1918. 18 LIST OF COUNTIES SHOWING ORGANIZATIONS TAKING THE LEAD OR CO-OPERATING IN FIRE PROTECTION Other organizations County Alameda Farm Advisor X U.S. Forest Service Alpine Amador ... Butte ... Calaveras ... Colusa X Contra Costa X Del Norte X El Dorado X X Fresno X X Glenn X X Humboldt X .... Imperial Inyo Kern X X X X Kings Lake X Lassen X Los Angeles .. X X Madera Marin Mariposa .. Mendocino Merced ... Modoc Mono Monterey .. Napa Nevada City of Arcadia. City of Pasadena. City of Sierra Madre. City of Azusa. City of Glendora. City of Monrovia. San Antonio Fruit Exchange. Eibio and Precipice Canyon Water Co. Banning "Water Company. San Gabriel Water Company. Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory. Pasadena and Mt. Wilson Road Toll Co. San Antonio Water Company. San Dimas Water Company. San Dimas Fruit Exchange. Glendora Mutual Water Company. Glendora Irrigating Company. Marin Municipal Water District. Monterey County Water Works. 19 County F Ad arm visor U.S. Forest Service Orange X X Placer X X Plumas X Eiverside X X Other organizations Tri-County Eeforestation Commit! ( Serrano Water Association. J. T. Carpenter Water Company. Irvine Company. Tri-County Eeforestation Committee. Idylwild Mt. Park Company. Temescal Water Company. Lake Hemet Water Company. First National Bank, Hemet. Sacramento x San Benito San Bernardino x x Tri-County Eeforestation Committee. . San Diego x x San Francisco San Joaquin x San Luis Obispo ... . ... . City of San Luis Obispo. San Mateo Santa Barbara x City of Santa Barbara. Montecito Fire Protective Association. Santa Barbara Chamber of Commerce. Sisquoc Fire Protective Association. City of Santa Barbara Water Commission. Santa Clara Santa Cruz x Shasta x x Sierra x Siskiyou x Solano x Sonoma x Stanislaus x Sutter x Tehama X Trinity x Tulare x x Tuolumne X Ventura x x Santa Paula Water Company Yolo x Yuba In addition a large number of timber owners cooperate with the United States Forest Service on the basis of 1% cents per acre per year for the protection of lands lying in or near the national forests. County cattlemen 's associations recently organized at the request of the federal food administration are actively furthering fire protection within their counties. 20 REPORT ON FIRES Location County Township Started in section Property of Date started Out Acres burned Value per acre Grain — Wheat, barley, oats, rye $ Forage — Grass, hay $ Timber $..._ Money damage Total Covered by insurance Improvements $ $ Grain $ $ Forage $..... $ Cause (in detail). If by tractor or thresher, what make and specific reason for fire If any reason to suspect incendiary, who is suspected and why? Witnesses (saw fire start) (first on scene) Address Address :.. Address . Address . Date of report Place Signature Title Remarks: ANOTHER TYPE OF FIRE REPORT OFFICE OF FIRE CHIEF Rural Fire Company No County, California Location State Date 19 Time Building Field Kind of building Kind of field Damage to building Slight Partial Total Damage to field Slight Partial Total Extended to another building Beyond Extended to another field Beyond Owner of building Owner of field - Value of building, $ Value of field, $ Insurance on building, $ Insurance on field, $.... Loss on building, $....'. Loss on field, $ 21 Occupant where fire started Kind of contents of building Value of contents, $ ; Insurance, $ ; Loss, $. Insurance agent or adjuster — (building) Insurance agent or adjuster — (field) Insurance agent or adjuster — (contents of building) Was origin of fire suspicious Cause of fire Officer in charge of fire Fire put out by residents By extinguisher Chemical lines Pails or hose Hydrant stream (Note. — Send promptly all information that can be obtained on this, the first day after the fire — further, or more accurate facts and figures later.) Date of report 19 Date of report 19 (Signed) , Fire Chief Fire Company ORDINANCE NO. 104 An Ordinance Providing for Protection of Property Against Fire, for the Preservation of the Public Peace, Health and Safety Within the County of Stanislaus and Providing the Punishment for a Vio- lation of this Ordinance. The Board of Supervisors of the County of Stanislaus, State of California, do ordain as follows: Section 1. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district or associa- tion of persons whatsoever, being a possession of, or occupying, or having control of any land within the County of Stanislaus, outside of incorporated cities and towns, upon which there has been sown, or is standing, growing, or grown, any wheat, oats, barley, hay, or other vegetation of any kind whatsoever, which when so sown, standing, growing, grown, or being upon said land in any way has become inflammable and in such a condition as to be easily set on fire, at all times during the season when the said wheat, oats, barley, hay or other vegetation is inflammable and in such a condition as to be easily set on fire, shall maintain on every portion of the boundary of the said land where the said land adjoins other land upon which said other land there is standing, growing, or being any wheat, oats, barley, hay or other vegetation of any kind which is inflammable and in such a condition as to be easily burned, an effective fire protection or fire break, the said fire protection or fire break to be made by plowing along the said boundary a strip of the said land not less than three feet in width, or by the removal of all inflammable matter from a strip of the said land not less than six feet in width along the said boundary when the said fire protection or fire break is made in some other manner than by plowing; provided that when the said land adjoins a high- 22 way the fire break may be made by removing all inflammable matter from the half of the highway next to the said land. Sec. 2. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district, or any asso- ciation of persons whatsoever, harvesting grain or causing grain to be harvested by means of a combined harvester, header or stationary threshing machine, or bailing hay by means of a hay press, shall keep at all times in convenient places upon each said combined harvester, header, or stationary threshing machine, or hay press, fully equipped and ready for immediate use, two suitable chemical fire extinguishers, each of a capacity of not less than two and one-half gallons. Sec. 3. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district, or any associa- tion of persons whatsoever, operating or causing to be operated any gas tractor or gas propelled harvesting machine in harvesting grain or hay in the County of Stanislaus shall maintain attached to the exhaust on said gas tractor or gas propelled harvesting machine an effective spark-arresting and burning carbon- arresting device. Sec. 4. No person shall operate or drive a motor vehicle of any kind other than gas tractors or gas propelled harvesting machines over or across any land upon which there is any inflammable vegetation of any kind unless the said motor vehicle is so constructed that the exhaust from the engine must pass from the engine into and through a muffler before being released to the air, and the said exhaust must be released to the air through the said muffler. Sec. 5. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district or association of persons whatsoever being in possession or occupying or having control of any warehouse or building maintained for the storage of grain, hay or foodstuffs, or other property of any kind or character, for hire, outside of incorporated cities and towns, shall at all times maintain around the said warehouse or building an effective fire protection or fire break, the said fire protection or fire break to be made by removing all inflammable material from the ground around the said warehouse or building for a distance of not less than twenty feet from the exterior walls of the said warehouse or building; and, in addition to the said fire protection or fire break, the said persons shall maintain in each of the said warehouses or buildings one chemical fire extinguisher of a capacity of two and one-half gallons, for each two thousand five hundred square feet of floor space in the said ware- house or building; or a forty-two gallon barrel filled with water and three two and one-half gallon pails for each two thousand five hundred square feet of floor space in the said warehouse or building. Sec. 6. Any person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district or association of persons violating any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not exceeding seven months or a fine not exceeding six hundred dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Sec. 7. All ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. Sec. 8. This ordinance is hereby declared to be an ordinance for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health and safety and is adopted for the purpose of preserving the grain and cereal food supply in the County of Stanislaus, and is passed by four-fifths vote of the Board of Supervisors of Stanislaus County. This ordinance shall take effect immediately and prior to the expiration of fifteen days after the passage thereof shall be published one week in the Modesto 23 Evening News and in the Modesto Morning Herald, newspapers of general cir- culation published in the said County of Stanislaus. Passed and adopted at a regular session of the Board of Supervisors of Stanis- laus County on this 14th day of May, 1918. The Sutter County Fire Protection ordinance, in addition to the above, provides for adequate inspection in the following section : It shall be lawful for the Board of Supervisors to engage an inspector or inspectors, at a compensation to be fixed by said Board, whose duty it shall be to inspect all combined harvesters, tractors, warehouses, buildings, fields, and other premises and places. Said inspectors and every peace officer shall have the right to enter any field, warehouse, building, or other premises and places for the purpose of making inspection to see that the provisions of this ordinance are being carried into effect, and they shall have the power to summarily arrest any one violating the provisions of this ordinance ; and said inspectors shall have the right to condemn any carbon catching device, and make such recommendations to the parties in charge thereof as he may see fit. STATION PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION No. 230. 242. 250. 251. 252. 253. 255. 257. 261. 262. 263. 264. 265. 266. 267. 268. 270. 271. 272. 273. No. 113. 114. 115. 124. 126. 127. 128. 129. 131. 133. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 142. 143. 144. 147. 148. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 160. 161. BULLETINS No. Enological Investigations. 274. Humus in California Soils. The Loquat. 275: Utilization of the Nitrogen and Organic Matter in Septic and Imhoff Tank 276. Sludges. 277. Deterioration of Lumber. 278. Irrigation and Soil Conditions in the 279. Sierra Nevada Foothills, California. 280. The Citricola Scale. New Dosage Tables. 281. Melaxuma of the Walnut, "Juglans regia." 282. Citrus Diseases of Florida and Cuba Compared with Those of California. 283. Size Grades for Ripe Olives. 284. The Calibration of the Leakage Meter. 286. Cottony Rot of Lemons in California. 288. A Spotting of Citrus Fruits Due to the Action of Oil Liberated from the Rind. 290. Experiments with Stocks for Citrus. Growing and Grafting Olive Seedlings. 291. A Comparison of Annual Cropping, Bi- ennial Cropping, and Green Manures 292. on the Yield of Wheat. Feeding Dairy Calves in California. 293. Commercial Fertilizers. 294. Preliminary Report on Kearney Vine- 295. yard Experimental Drain. 296. CIRCULARS No. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture. 162. Increasing the Duty of Water. Grafting Vinifera Vineyards. 164. Alfalfa Silage for Fattening Steers. 165. Spraying for the Grape Leaf Hopper. House Fumigation. 166. Insecticide Formulas. 167. The Control of Citrus Insects. 168. Snravine for Control of Walnut' Aphis. Countv Farm Adviser. 169. Official Tests of Dairy Cows. 170. Melilotus Indica. Wood Decay in Orchard Trees. 172. The Silo in California Agriculture. 174. The Generation of Hydrocyanic Acid 175. Gas in Fumigation by Portable Ma- chines. 176. The Practical Application of Improved Methods of Fermentation in Califor- 177. nia Wineries during 1913 and 1914. 179. Practical and Inexpensive Poultry Ap- pliances. / 181. Control of Grasshoppers in Imperial Vdley. 182. Oidium or Powderv Mildew of the Vine. Tomato Growing in California. 183. "Lungworms." 184. Feeding and Management of Hogs. 186. Some Observations on the Bulk Hand- 187. ling of Grain in California. 188. Announcement of the California State 189. Dairv Cow Competition, 1916-18. 191. Irrigation Practice in Growing Small 192. Fruits in California. 193. Bovine Tuberculosis. 196. How to Operate an Incubator. 197. Control of the Pear Scab. Home and Farm Canning. 198. Lettuce Growing in California. 200. Potatoes in California. 201. The Common Honey Bee as an Agent in Prune Pollination. The Cultivation of Belladonna in Cali- fornia. The Pomegranate. Sudan Grass. Grain Sorghums. Irrigation of Rice in California. Irrigation of Alfalfa in the Sacramento Valley. Control of the Pocket Gophers in Cali- fornia. Trials with California Silage Crops for Dairy Cows. The Olive Insects of California. Irrigation of Alfalfa in Imperial Valley. Commercial Fertilizers. Potash from Tule and the Fertilizer Value of Certain Marsh Plants. The June Drop of Washington Navel Oranges. The Common Honey Bee as an Agent in Prune Pollination. (2nd report.) Green Manure Crops in Southern Cali- fornia. Sweet Sorghums for Forage. Bean Culture in California. Fire Protection for Grain Fields. Topping and Pinching Vines. White Diarrhoea and Coccidiosis of Chicks. Small FruiJ Culture in California. Fundamentals of Sugar Beets under California Conditions. The County Farm Bureau. Feeding Stuffs of Minor Importance. Spraying for the Control ef Wild Morn- ing-Glory within the Fog Belt. The 1918 Grain Crop. Fertilizing California Soils for the 1918 Crop. Wheat Culture. Farm Drainage Methods. Progress Report on the Marketing and Distribution of Milk. Hog Cholera Prevention and the Serum Treatment. Grain Sorghums. Factors of Importance in Producing Milk of Low Bacterial Count. Control of the California Ground Squirrel. Extending the Area of Irrigated Wheat in California for 1918. Infectious Abortion in Cows. A Flock of Sheep on the Farm. Poultry on the Farm. Utilizing the Sorghums. Lambing Sheds. Winter Forage Crops. Pruning the Seedless Grapes. Cotton in the San Joaquin Valley. A Study of Farm Labor in California. Dairy Calves for Veal. Suggestions for Increasing Egg Pro- duction in a Time of High-Feed Prices. Syrup from Sweet Sorghum. Growing the Fall or Second Crop of Potatoes in California. Helpful Hints to Hog Raisers.